* Đổi thì quá khứ đơn sang hiện tại hoàn thành
1. S + last + V quá khứ đơn + thời gian + ago / in + mốc thời gian
àS + V hiện tại hoàn thành (phủ định) + for + thời gian / since + mốc thời gian
àIt’s + thời gian + since + S + last + V quá khứ đơn.
àThe last time + S + V quá khứ đơn + was + thời gian + ago.
2. This is the first time + S + HTHT khẳng định
 à S + HTHT never + before
3. S + began / started + V-ing + —-
    à S + have / has + V3/-ed + for / since —
1. We last went to Londontwo years ago.
à We —————————————————————————————–
à  It’s —————————————————————————————–
à The last time —————————————————————————–

2. This is the first time I have visited Hanoi.
             à  I ——————————————————————————————————–
3. I began learning English five years ago.
à  I have —————————————————————————————————-
4. I last saw her in 2010.
5. I haven’t eaten this kind of food before.
6. I started working for this company a year ago.
7. I last read that book on November 20th.
8. I have never eaten with knives and folks before.
9. It is 10 years since I last visited Dalat.
10. She hasn’t phoned home for two weeks.
11. Mr. Brown bought this car five years ago.
A. Mr. Brown started to buy this car five years ago.
B. It has been five years when Mr. Brown bought this car
C. Mr. Brown has had this car for five years.
D. It is five years ago since Mr. Brown bought this car.
12. I haven’t enjoyed myself so much for years.
A. It’s years since I enjoyed myself so much.
B. It’s years since I have enjoyed myself so much.
C. It was years since I had enjoyed myself so much.
D. It has been years since I have enjoyed myself so much.
13. We started working here three years ago.
A. We worked here for three years.
B. We have no longer worked here for three years.
C. We have worked here for three years.
D. We will work here in three years.

14. It’s a long time since we last went to the cinema.
A. We have been to the cinema for a long time.
B. We haven’t been to the cinema for a long time.
C. We don’t go to the cinema as we used to.
D. We wish we went to the cinema now.
15. I haven’t finished this book yet.
A. I’m still reading this book.
B. I have read this book before.
C. The book I’m reading hasn’t finished.
D. I will read this book some day.
16. He last had his eyes tested ten months ago.
A. He hasn’t had his eyes tested for ten months .
B. He  had not tested his eyes  for ten months then.
C. He had tested his eyes  ten months before.
D. He didn’t have any test on his eyes in ten months.

* Câu bị động:

Simple present
V1 / Vs(es)
Am / is / are + V3/-ed
Present continuous
Am / is / are + V-ing
Am / is / are + being + V3/-ed
Present perfect
Has / have + P.P
Has / have + been + V3/-ed
Simple past
V2 / V-ed
Was / were + V3/-ed
Past continuous
Was / were + V-ing
Was / were + being + V3/-ed
Past perfect
Had + P.P
Had + been + V3/-ed
Simple future
Will / shall + V1
Will / shall + be + V3/-ed
Future perfect
Will/ shall + have + P.P
Will / shall + have + been + V3/-ed
Modal verbs
Can/ could/ shall / might + V1
Can/ could/ shall / might +  be +V3/-ed

– Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn đứng trước by + O; trạng từ chỉ thời gian đứng sau by + O
– Nếu chủ từ trong câu chủ động là từ phủ định thì đổi sang câu bị động phủ định.
– Các chủ từ someone, anyone, people, he, she, they … trong câu chủ động thì có thể bỏ “by + O” trong câu bị động

Exercise: Change the following sentences into passive voice
1. Sam killed a lion last week.
2. You must hand in your report before the end of this month.
3. I had just finished the job when the factory closed.
4. No one has opened that box for the past hundred years.
5. Are you going to mail these letters soon?
6. He should have finished the report yesterday.
7. Nobody has answered my question properly.
8. They are going to build a new school in this area.
9. We have bought a lot of vegetables
10. He has to clean the house before having lunch.


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